How Japan has almost eradicated gun crime
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Japan has one of the lowest rates of gun crime in the world. In 2014 there were just six gun deaths, compared to 33,599 in the US. What is the secret?
You have to attend an all-day class, take a written exam and pass a shooting-range test with a mark of at least 95%.
Your criminal record is checked and police look for links to extremist groups. Then they check your relatives too - and even your work colleagues. And as well as having the power to deny gun licences,
They are the first nation to impose gun laws in the whole world and I think it laid down a bedrock saying that guns really don't play a part in civilian society."
The result is a very low level of gun ownership - 0.6 guns per 100 people in 2007, according to the Small Arms Survey, compared to 6.2 in England and Wales and 88.8 in the US.
The moment you have guns in society, you will have gun violence
Japanese police officers rarely use guns and put much greater emphasis on martial arts
If you have too many police pulling out guns at the first instance of crime, you lead to a miniature arms race between police and criminals
policemen never carry weapons off-duty, leaving them at the station when they finish their shift.
One bullet shell was unaccounted for - one shell had fallen behind one of the targets - and nobody was allowed to leave the facilities until they found the shell
There is no clamour in Japan for gun regulations to be relaxed, says Berteaux. "A lot of it stems from this post-war sentiment of pacifism that the war was horrible and we can never have that again,
peace is always going to exist and when you have a culture like that you don't really feel the need to arm yourself or have an object that disrupts that peace."