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Among the most important provisions adapted from Spanish- Mexican law were community property, homestead exemptions and protections, and debtor relief.
The legislature was bicameral, the two houses being the Senate and the House of Representatives.
Typical American features included a short preamble; separation of the powers of government into three branches- legislative, executive, and judicial; checks and balances; slavery; citizenship, with “Africans, the descendents of Africans, and Indians excepted”; a Bill of Rights; male suffrage; and method of amendment.
was drafted by a convention of fifty-nine delegates who assembled at Washington-on-the-Brazos on March 1, 1836.
The Constitution of the Republic of Texas (1836), the first Anglo-American constitution to govern Texas,
Texas Government 2.0, The Texas State Constitution and the American Federal System, Constitution of the Republic of Texas (1836) | OER Commons
the constitution was accepted by the United States on December 29, 1845.
Its straightforward, simple form prompted many national politicians
The Constitution of 1845 has been the most popular of all Texas constitutions.
Most of its thirty-seven sections were limitations on the legislature.
The longest article of the constitution was Article VII, on General Provisions.
The framers, members of the Convention of 1845, drew heavily on the newly adopted Constitution of Louisiana and on the constitution drawn by the Convention of 1833 , but apparently used as a working model the Constitution of the republic for a general plan of government and bill of rights.
The Constitution of 1845, which provided for the government of Texas as a state in the United States, was almost twice as long as the Constitution of the Republic of Texas.
Texas Government 2.0, The Texas State Constitution and the American Federal System, Constitution of 1845 | OER Commons
herefore, the pattern of diffusion on which the original theory rests may no longer be accurate, because people are moving around in more, and often unpredictable, directions.
In addition, advances in technology and transportation have made it easier for citizens to travel across state lines and to relocate.
Today’s immigrants are less likely to come from European countries and are more likely to originate in Latin American and Asian countries.
The original theory rested on the assumption that new cultures could arise with the influx of settlers from different parts of the world; however, since immigration patterns have changed over time, it could be argued that the three cultures no longer match the country’s current reality.
Elazar’s Theory claims that Texas is a mixture of traditional and individualistic political cultures. As a result, the voter turnout in Texas is lower than most other American states, with the argument that Texans view political participation as an economic perk versus the value of contributing to society.
Finally, under a traditionalistic political culture, Elazar argues that party competition will tend to occur between factions within a dominant party.
s a result, voter participation will generally be lower in a traditionalistic culture, and there will be more barriers to participation
Conservatives argue that these laws reduce or eliminate fraud on the part of voters, while liberals believe they disproportionally disenfranchise the poor and minorities and constitute a modern-day poll tax.
While moralistic cultures expect and encourage political participation by all citizens, traditionalistic cultures are more likely to see it as a privilege reserved for only those who meet the qualifications.
When elected officials do not prioritize public policies that benefit them, those on the social and economic fringes of society can be plagued by poverty and pervasive health problems.
But instead of profiting from corporate ventures, settlers in traditionalistic states tied their economic fortunes to the necessity of slavery on plantations throughout the South.
. Like the individualistic culture, the traditionalistic culture believes in the importance of the individual.
Only elites belong in the political enterprise, and as a result, new public policies will be advanced only if they reinforce the beliefs and interests of those in power.
a traditionalistic political culture, in Elazar’s argument, sees the government as necessary to maintaining the existing social order, the status quo.
, Elazar argues that in individualistic states, electoral competition does not seek to identify the candidate with the best ideas. Instead it pits against each other political parties that are well organized and compete directly for votes.
voters do not pay much attention to the personalities of the candidates when deciding how to vote and are less tolerant of third-party candidates.
They will tend to remain involved if they get enjoyment from their participation or rewards in the form of patronage appointments or financial compensation.
As a result of these personal motivations, citizens in individualistic states will tend to be more tolerant of corruption among their political leaders and less likely to see politics as a noble profession in which all citizens should engage.
Elazar argues that individuals are motivated to become engaged in politics only if they have a personal interest in this area or wish to be in charge of the provision of government benefits.
Given their focus on pursuing individual objectives, states with an individualistic mindset will tend to advance tax breaks as a way of trying to boost a state’s economy or as a mechanism for promoting individual initiative and entrepreneurship.
According to Elazar, the individualist political culture originated with settlers from non-Puritan England and Germany.
The focus is on meeting individual needs and private goals rather than on serving the best interests of everyone in the community.
They expect the government to provide goods and services they see as essential, and the public officials and bureaucrats who provide them expect to be compensated for their efforts.
States that align with Elazar’s individualistic political culture see the government as a mechanism for addressing issues that matter to individual citizens and for pursuing individual goals.
Texas Government 2.0, Introduction to Texas History and Politics, State Political Culture | OER Commons
The Texas Bill of Rights outlines the limits on the powers of the government that would violate our rights.
The purpose is to protect those rights against infringement from public officials and private citizens.
As for powers, the legislature makes law, the executive enforces law, and the judicial branch adjudicates and interprets the law.
A bill of rights, sometimes called a declaration of rights or a charter of rights, is a list of the most important rights to the citizens.
limits on powers come in the form of the Bill of Rights.
the Texas government has three branches in which the legislative branch is bicameral, the executive branch is plural, and the judicial branch is bifurcated.
When it comes to structure, this can include the creation of branches as well as how each branch is organized.
nother way of thinking about it is that a constitution outlines the structure of the government, defines the powers of the government, and enumerates limits on the government.
A constitution is a body of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is acknowledged to be governed.
Texas Government 2.0, The Texas State Constitution and the American Federal System, Introduction: The Texas State Constitution and the American Federal System | OER Commons
Congress was made the final interpreter of the document; the Catholic religion was made the state faith; and the church was supported by the public treasury.
Constitutional government in Texas began with the Mexican Federal Constitution of 1824
Texas Government 2.0, The Texas State Constitution and the American Federal System, Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States (1824) | OER Commons
slavery was forbidden after promulgation of the constitution, and there could be no import of slaves after six months.
citizens were guaranteed liberty, security, property, and equality;
The Constitution of Coahuila and Texas divided the state into three departments, of which Texas, as the District of Bexar, was one.
The Constitution of 1824 of the Republic of Mexico provided that each state in the republic should frame its own constitution.
Texas Government 2.0, The Texas State Constitution and the American Federal System, Constitution Of Coahuila And Texas (1827) | OER Commons